This will be a simplified and Twitter-like introduction.
First the definitions:
Client – sends requests, i.e. a client can be a Chrome Browser sending a request to a Web Server.
Server – responds to requests, i.e. a Web Server responding to Chrome Browser request by serving HTML.
For detailed information and walkthroughs:
Client and Server Model – Fast Tech Skills
How the Internet Works for Developers – Pt 1 – Overview & Frontend
How the Internet Works for Developers – Pt 2 – Servers & Scaling
How the Web Works: A Primer for Newcomers to Web Development (or anyone, really)
Structure of the Internet: Client server model
What are the differences between server-side and client-side programming?
Lesson 2 Anatomy of a Web Application
Client-Side vs. Server-Side Code: What’s the Difference?
Special thanks to Anna for simplifying this for me